Chronic kidney disease occurs when a disease or condition impairs kidney function, causing kidney damage to worsen over several months or years.
Chronic renal disease is a condition that lasts for a long time and causes irreversible kidney damage and declining kidney function. In most cases, it gets worse with time. With more cases being documented, it is now a widespread issue around the world.
The Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) recommendations describe CKD as kidney structural or function abnormalities that have been evident for more than three months and have an impact on health.
The risks, symptoms, and problems associated with CKD in children are extremely specific to the paediatric age range, hence this definition is intended for adults only. Additionally, it might have an impact on how they develop and how happy they are as adults. Chronic renal disease or chronic renal failure are other names for it.
Although CKD is much more common in adults, it is already occurring in children at an alarming rate. There are numerous factors that might lead to CKD in children. It could be brought on by renal malformation or the existence of scar tissues that interfere with the kidneys’ natural function. Additionally, it can be a congenital issue that has existed from birth.
Nephrotic syndromes can occasionally cause Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis, a dangerous disorder (FSGS). This results in severe tissue scarring that can deteriorate over time as additional scar tissues grow as the kidney is stressed. CKD can also be caused by other conditions that result in tissue scarring.
In addition, the following factors may contribute to the development of CKD:
- some cancers
- other autoimmune illnesses, such as lupus
- medicine side effects or other illnesses’ treatments
Nephrotic disorders may contribute to chronic kidney disease. A group of symptoms known as nephrotic syndromes include abnormally high levels of albumin and protein in the body. It can also result in elevated blood cholesterol and edoema from the body retaining too much fluid.
Since CKD is a chronic condition, the only long-term cure is a whole kidney transplant in extreme cases of renal impairment. A fairly standard quality of life can still be maintained while the disease’s onset is also greatly slowed down in other respects.
To remove waste from their bodies, individuals with CKD may also require routine dialysis.
To prevent the kidney from being put under too much stress, the management of CKD typically involves a number of dietary restrictions. Patients are encouraged to eat more calories overall by increasing their diet of fat and carbohydrates in order to prevent fatigue. Protein consumption is restricted because filtering proteins puts a lot of burden on the kidneys. It should be remembered, nevertheless, that too much protein restriction could harm children’s development and growth.
Intake of water is also closely observed. Patients are frequently advised to slurp on ice cubes or sip slushies instead of consuming large volumes of liquid. In addition, there are restrictions on the amounts of sodium, potassium, and phosphorus.
When creating a meal plan for a child with CKD, a dietician needs to be contacted. In addition to dietary restrictions, the doctor may advise immunisation to protect the youngster from a variety of external illnesses.