Researchers at Mayo Clinic in a study published in the JAMA journal found that semaglutide treatment in a regular clinical setting was associated with weight loss.
Obesity is a chronic, multifactorial, and relapsing disease with an increasing prevalence estimated to reach 49% by 2030. Its medical burden includes multiple comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, stroke, coronary heart disease, and various cancers. A total cost of $1.71 trillion in the United States was attributed to chronic diseases associated with obesity. Considering the medical and economic costs associated with obesity, effective weight management is important to mitigate the associated morbidity and mortality.
In a cohort study, conducted at a referral center for weight management, retrospectively collected data on the use of semaglutide for adults with overweight or obesity between January 1, 2021, and March 15, 2022, with a follow-up of up to 6 months. A total of 408 patients with a body mass index (BMI) of 27, 1.7-mg, 2.4-mg semaglutide subcutaneous injections were prescribed weekly for 3 to 6 months. Patients with a history of bariatric procedures, taking other ant obesity medications, and with an active malignant neoplasm were excluded.
The researchers stated that the main objective was to study weight loss outcomes associated with semaglutide treatment at doses used in randomized clinical trials for patients with overweight or obesity.
The primary end point was the percentage of weight loss. Secondary end points were the proportion of patients achieving weight loss of 5% or more, 10% or more, 15% or more, and 20% or more after 3 and 6 months and the percentage of weight loss for patients with or without type 2 diabetes after 3 and 6 months.
In the analysis at 3 months and 102 patients at 6 months.
The mean (SD) weight loss after 3 months was 6.7 (4.4) kg, equivalent to a mean (SD) weight loss of 5.9% (3.7%) (P?<?.001), and the mean (SD) weight loss after 6 months was 12.3 (6.6) kg, equivalent to a mean (SD) weight loss of 10.9% (5.8%) (P?<?.001 from baseline). Of the 102 patients who were followed up at 6 months, 89 (87.3%) achieved a weight loss of 5% or more, 56 (54.9%) achieved a weight loss of 10% or more, 24 (23.5%) achieved a weight loss of 15% or more, and 8 (7.8%) achieved a weight loss of 20% or more. Patients with type 2 diabetes had a lower mean (SD) percentage weight loss at 3 and 6 months compared with those without type 2 diabetes: 3.9% (3.1%) vs 6.3% (3.7%) at 3 months (P?=?.001) and 7.2% (6.3%) vs 11.8% (5.3%) at 6 months (P?=?.005).
Thus, the researchers concluded that the results of this cohort study suggest that weekly 1.7-mg and 2.4-mg doses of semaglutide were associated with weight loss similar to that seen in randomized clinical trials.
Studies with longer periods of follow-up are needed to evaluate prolonged weight loss outcomes.