Sat. Jul 20th, 2024

Ovarian Cancer: Understanding risks, symptoms, and emerging horizons in treatment

Increased understanding will lead to early detection, effective management, and a brighter future for those facing this formidable adversary.

Ovarian cancer is a formidable adversary, often referred to as the “silent killer” due to its subtle symptoms in the early stages. This type of cancer originates in the ovaries, the female reproductive organs responsible for producing eggs and hormones.

Ovarian cancer often presents with vague symptoms, making diagnosis challenging until the disease has progressed. Risk factors include age, family history, genetic mutations (such as BRCA1 and BRCA2), and hormonal factors. Treatment typically involves surgery to remove affected tissues and organs, followed by chemotherapy to target any remaining cancer cells.

Understanding the risks, symptoms, and available treatment options is crucial for early detection and effective management of ovarian cancer.

Risk Factors

Several factors contribute to the development of ovarian cancer.

Age is a significant risk factor, with the majority of cases diagnosed in women over the age of 50. Family history of ovarian or breast cancer, inherited gene mutations such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, and a personal history of breast, colorectal, or endometrial cancer can increase the risk.

Additionally, hormonal factors, including early onset of menstruation, late onset of menopause, and never having been pregnant, can contribute to a higher risk.


Ovarian cancer is notorious for its vague symptoms, making it challenging to diagnose in the early stages.

Common symptoms of ovarian cancer may include:

  1. Abdominal Bloating: Persistent swelling or feeling of fullness in the abdomen, often resembling bloating.
  2. Pelvic Pain: Discomfort or pain in the pelvic area may be experienced, and it can range from a dull ache to sharp pains.
  3. Difficulty Eating or Feeling Full Quickly: A sense of early satiety or difficulty eating, even when consuming small amounts of food.
  4. Urinary Changes: Changes in urinary habits, such as increased frequency or urgency, may occur.
  5. Changes in Bowel Habits: Changes in bowel habits, including constipation or diarrhea, may be observed.
  6. Unexplained Weight Loss: Significant and unexplained weight loss without changes in diet or physical activity.
  7. Fatigue: Persistent feelings of tiredness or low energy levels that are not alleviated by rest.
  8. Back Pain: Pain in the lower back may occur in some cases.

It’s important to emphasize that these symptoms are general and can be caused by various conditions other than ovarian cancer. Additionally, ovarian cancer symptoms can be subtle, and the absence of symptoms does not guarantee the absence of the disease. Given the challenge of early detection, women with risk factors or persistent symptoms should seek prompt medical attention for a comprehensive evaluation, including physical examination and appropriate diagnostic tests. Early detection significantly improves the prognosis and treatment options for ovarian cancer.


Early detection is crucial for successful treatment, but ovarian cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history review, physical examination, imaging studies (such as ultrasound or CT scans), and blood tests.

Here are key steps in the diagnostic process:

  1. Medical History and Physical Examination:
    • The healthcare provider will take a detailed medical history, including information about symptoms, risk factors, and family history of cancer.
    • A thorough physical examination, including a pelvic examination, may be performed to assess for any abnormalities.
  2. Imaging Studies:
    • Transvaginal Ultrasound: This imaging technique uses sound waves to create detailed images of the ovaries and surrounding structures. It is often used to detect the presence of ovarian masses or tumors.
    • CT Scan or MRI: These imaging studies may be employed to get a more comprehensive view of the abdomen and pelvis, helping to determine the extent of the disease.
  3. Blood Tests:
    • CA-125 Test: This blood test measures the level of CA-125, a tumor marker that can be elevated in the presence of ovarian cancer. However, CA-125 levels can also be elevated in non-cancerous conditions, and not all ovarian cancers produce elevated CA-125.
  4. Biopsy:
    • In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. This involves removing a small sample of tissue from the ovary for examination under a microscope. Biopsies can be obtained through surgery or, in some cases, via a minimally invasive procedure.
  5. Surgical Exploration:
    • Exploratory Surgery (Laparotomy or Laparoscopy): In cases where there is a high suspicion of ovarian cancer, surgical exploration may be performed. This allows the surgeon to visually inspect the ovaries and surrounding tissues and to collect samples for biopsy.

It’s important to note that the diagnostic process is individualized based on the patient’s specific circumstances, symptoms, and the results of initial tests. While imaging and blood tests may provide valuable information, a definitive diagnosis often requires a biopsy.

Treatment Options

Treatment for ovarian cancer depends on the stage of the disease, the type of ovarian cancer, and the patient’s overall health. Surgery is a common approach and may involve removing one or both ovaries, the fallopian tubes, and the uterus. In advanced cases, the surgeon may also remove surrounding tissues or organs affected by cancer. After surgery, chemotherapy is often recommended to target any remaining cancer cells and prevent recurrence. Radiation therapy may be employed in specific situations, though it is less common for ovarian cancer.

Here is an overview of the main treatment modalities for ovarian cancer:

  1. Surgery:
    • Debulking Surgery: In many cases, the primary treatment for ovarian cancer involves surgery to remove as much of the tumor as possible. This is known as debulking surgery and may include the removal of one or both ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the uterus. Additionally, nearby lymph nodes and other affected tissues may be removed.
    • Fertility-Sparing Surgery: In some cases, particularly in younger women who wish to preserve fertility, a more conservative surgery may be considered. This involves removing the tumor while leaving the uterus and one ovary intact.
  2. Chemotherapy:
    • Adjuvant Chemotherapy: Following surgery, chemotherapy is often recommended to destroy any remaining cancer cells and reduce the risk of recurrence. Chemotherapy may be administered intravenously or directly into the abdominal cavity (intraperitoneal chemotherapy).
    • Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: In some cases, chemotherapy may be administered before surgery to shrink the tumor and make it easier to remove during surgery.
  3. Radiation Therapy:
    • External Beam Radiation: This type of radiation therapy involves directing high-energy rays at the cancer cells from outside the body. It is less commonly used in ovarian cancer but may be considered in specific situations, such as after surgery to eliminate any remaining cancer cells.
  4. Targeted Therapies and Immunotherapy:
    • Research is ongoing to explore targeted therapies that focus on specific molecular changes in cancer cells. Immunotherapy, which stimulates the body’s immune system to target and destroy cancer cells, is also being investigated in the context of ovarian cancer.
  5. Clinical Trials:
    • Participation in clinical trials may be an option for some individuals. Clinical trials evaluate new treatments or combinations of treatments, offering the potential for more effective and innovative approaches.

It’s important for individuals with ovarian cancer to work closely with a multidisciplinary healthcare team, which may include gynaecologic oncologists, medical oncologists, and radiation oncologists, to tailor a treatment plan to their specific needs.

Emerging Therapies

Research and clinical trials are ongoing to develop new and more effective treatments for ovarian cancer.

Here are some of the emerging therapies and areas of research:

  1. Immunotherapy:
    • Immunotherapy harnesses the body’s immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells. Checkpoint inhibitors, adoptive cell transfer, and vaccines are being investigated in clinical trials for ovarian cancer. These therapies aim to enhance the immune system’s ability to target and eliminate cancer cells.
  2. PARP Inhibitors:
    • Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors are a class of drugs that interfere with the ability of cancer cells to repair their DNA. These inhibitors have shown success in treating ovarian cancers with specific genetic mutations, such as those in the BRCA genes. Ongoing research is exploring their effectiveness in different patient populations and in combination with other treatments.
  3. Angiogenesis Inhibitors:
    • Angiogenesis inhibitors target the blood vessels that supply nutrients to tumors, inhibiting their growth. Bevacizumab is an example of an angiogenesis inhibitor that has shown efficacy in certain cases of ovarian cancer. Research continues to explore new agents and combinations.
  4. PARP Inhibitors and Immunotherapy Combinations:
    • Some studies are investigating the combination of PARP inhibitors with immunotherapy to enhance the immune response against ovarian cancer cells. This combination approach aims to capitalize on the potential synergy between these two therapeutic strategies.
  5. Targeted Therapies:
    • Targeted therapies focus on specific molecular changes in cancer cells. For ovarian cancer, targeted therapies are being developed to address specific genetic mutations and pathways implicated in cancer growth. Precision medicine approaches aim to tailor treatments to the individual characteristics of the patient’s tumor.
  6. Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC):
    • HIPEC is a technique that involves delivering heated chemotherapy directly into the abdominal cavity during surgery. This approach is being studied to determine its effectiveness in preventing the recurrence of ovarian cancer.
  7. Gene Therapies:
    • Gene therapies involve introducing genetic material into cancer cells to modify their behavior. This area of research is still in its early stages, but it holds promise for developing targeted and personalized treatments for ovarian cancer.

It’s important to note that while these emerging therapies show promise, they are often in the experimental stage, and their long-term effectiveness and safety are still being studied.


Ovarian cancer presents a formidable challenge to women’s health, often diagnosed at an advanced stage when treatment options are limited.

Increased awareness of risk factors and symptoms, coupled with regular screenings and early medical intervention, can improve the chances of early detection and successful treatment. As research continues to advance, the hope is that novel therapies will provide more effective and less invasive options for women facing the battle against ovarian cancer.

Regular check-ups, open communication with healthcare providers, and ongoing research participation are essential in the collective effort to combat this formidable disease.

By Parvathy Sukumaran

Parvathy Sukumaran is a Content Creator and Editor at JustCare Health. She is an Educator and a Language Lecturer. She holds a Bachelor's Degree in Education and an M.A in English Literature. She is passionate about writing, archaeology, music and cooking.

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