Mon. Jun 24th, 2024

Understanding Vulval Cancer: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options

In women under 50 who have not yet experienced menopause, the condition is uncommon.

Vulval cancer is a relatively rare but serious form of cancer that affects the external female genitalia. While it accounts for only a small percentage of all gynecological cancers, it is essential to raise awareness about this condition.

Early detection and prompt treatment can significantly improve the prognosis for those diagnosed with vulval cancer.

We will explore the causes, symptoms, and available treatment options for vulval cancer, here.

Causes of Vulval Cancer

The exact cause of vulval cancer is not always clear, but certain risk factors increase the likelihood of developing this condition. These risk factors include:

  1. Age: Vulval cancer is more common in older women, with the majority of cases occurring in women over the age of 60.
  2. Human Papillomavirus (HPV): Some types of HPV are associated with an increased risk of vulval cancer. HPV vaccines can help reduce this risk.
  3. Smoking: Smoking has been linked to an increased risk of vulval cancer. Quitting smoking can lower this risk.
  4. Chronic Vulval Skin Conditions: Conditions such as lichen sclerosus and vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) can increase the risk of vulval cancer.
  5. Immunosuppression: Individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV or organ transplant recipients, may have a higher risk of developing vulval cancer.

Symptoms of Vulval Cancer

Recognizing the early signs and symptoms of vulval cancer is crucial for timely diagnosis and treatment. Common symptoms may include:

  1. Persistent itching or burning: Unexplained and prolonged itching or burning in the vulval area may be a symptom of vulval cancer.
  2. Pain: Pain or discomfort in the vulval area, especially during sexual intercourse, can be a warning sign.
  3. Changes in the skin: Any changes in the color, texture, or appearance of the vulval skin, such as thickening, ulceration, or the development of a lump, should be evaluated by a healthcare professional.
  4. Bleeding: Unusual vaginal bleeding, especially after menopause, can indicate a problem and should be investigated promptly.
  5. Swelling of the legs: In some cases, vulval cancer may cause swelling in the legs due to blockage of lymphatic vessels.

Treatment Options for Vulval Cancer

The treatment of vulval cancer depends on various factors, including the stage of the cancer, the patient’s overall health, and their preferences. Common treatment options include:

  1. Surgery: Surgical removal of the cancerous tissue is the primary treatment for vulval cancer. Depending on the extent of the disease, a partial or complete vulvectomy (removal of the vulva) may be necessary.
  2. Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy may be used before or after surgery to target and kill cancer cells.
  3. Chemotherapy: In some cases, chemotherapy may be recommended, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
  4. Immunotherapy and Targeted Therapies: These newer treatment options are being explored in clinical trials for vulval cancer and may offer additional treatment choices in the future.


Vulval cancer is a rare but serious condition that primarily affects older women. Understanding the risk factors and recognizing the early signs and symptoms is crucial for early detection and improved outcomes.

If you or someone you know experiences any concerning symptoms related to vulval health, it’s essential to seek medical attention promptly. Advances in treatment options and ongoing research offer hope for better outcomes for those diagnosed with vulval cancer.

Regular check-ups and screenings can play a significant role in early detection and prevention, highlighting the importance of women’s healthcare and awareness about this condition.

By Parvathy Sukumaran

Parvathy Sukumaran is a Content Creator and Editor at JustCare Health. She is an Educator and a Language Lecturer. She holds a Bachelor's Degree in Education and an M.A in English Literature. She is passionate about writing, archaeology, music and cooking.

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