Wed. Jun 19th, 2024

Kidney Stones: Causes, symptoms, and treatment

Kidney stones can cause a range of symptoms, including intense pain in the back or side, blood in the urine, and discomfort during urination.

A kidney stone, also known as renal calculus or nephrolith, is a hard, crystalline mineral material formed within the kidneys or urinary tract. These stones can vary in size and shape and may cause severe pain as they pass through the urinary system.

Kidney stones are composed of various substances, including calcium, oxalate, and phosphate, which can accumulate and solidify in the kidneys.

The formation of kidney stones can be influenced by factors such as dehydration, certain dietary choices, genetic predisposition, and underlying medical conditions.


The formation of kidney stones can be attributed to a variety of factors.

The primary causes include:

  1. Dehydration: Insufficient water intake can lead to concentrated urine, which increases the likelihood of minerals and salts crystallizing and forming stones.
  2. Dietary Factors:
    • High Oxalate Intake: Consuming foods rich in oxalates, such as beets, chocolate, nuts, and certain leafy greens, can contribute to stone formation.
    • High Sodium (Salt) Intake: Excessive salt consumption can increase calcium levels in the urine, promoting stone formation.
  3. Genetic Predisposition: A family history of kidney stones may increase an individual’s susceptibility to developing them.
  4. Medical Conditions:
    • Hypercalciuria: Excessive calcium excretion in the urine can contribute to stone formation.
    • Hyperoxaluria: Elevated levels of oxalate in the urine may lead to the formation of oxalate stones.
    • Hyperparathyroidism: Overactivity of the parathyroid glands can increase calcium levels in the blood and urine, potentially leading to stones.
  5. Certain Medical Treatments: Certain medical conditions and treatments, such as gastric bypass surgery or certain medications, may increase the risk of kidney stone formation.
  6. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): Infections in the urinary tract can create an environment conducive to the formation of stones.
  7. Anatomical Factors: Abnormalities in the structure of the urinary tract or kidneys can hinder the normal flow of urine and contribute to stone development.
  8. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): Conditions like Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis can increase the risk of kidney stones.


The symptoms of kidney stones can vary depending on the size and location of the stone within the urinary tract. Common symptoms include:

  1. Severe Pain: One of the most distinctive symptoms is intense pain, often described as sharp or stabbing. The pain can occur in the back or side, below the ribs, and may radiate to the lower abdomen and groin. The severity of pain can fluctuate as the stone moves through the urinary tract.
  2. Hematuria (Blood in Urine): Kidney stones can cause small amounts of blood to appear in the urine. The urine may appear pink, red, or brown.
  3. Frequent Urination: Individuals with kidney stones may experience an increased urge to urinate. However, the actual urine output may be reduced due to the obstruction caused by the stone.
  4. Painful Urination: Discomfort or pain during urination is another common symptom.
  5. Cloudy or Foul-Smelling Urine: The presence of kidney stones can sometimes lead to changes in the appearance and odor of urine.
  6. Nausea and Vomiting: Some people with kidney stones may experience nausea and vomiting, particularly if the pain is severe.
  7. Urinary Urgency: A sense of urgency to urinate, even if only small amounts of urine are passed.
  8. Fever and Chills: In cases where a kidney stone causes a urinary tract infection (UTI), symptoms may include fever and chills.


The appropriate treatment for kidney stones depends on various factors, including the size and type of the stone, the severity of symptoms, and the individual’s overall health.

Here are some common approaches to the treatment of kidney stones:

  1. Pain Management:
    • Over-the-counter pain medications, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen, may be recommended to manage pain.
    • Prescription medications may be provided for more severe pain.
  2. Hydration:
    • Drinking plenty of water is crucial to help flush out the stone and prevent future stone formation.
    • In some cases, intravenous (IV) fluids may be administered, especially if there is dehydration or severe pain.
  3. Medical Expulsion Therapy:
    • Medications like alpha-blockers may be prescribed to relax the muscles of the ureter, facilitating the passage of the stone.
  4. Observation:
    • Small stones that do not cause significant symptoms may be monitored, allowing them to pass naturally.
  5. Lithotripsy:
    • Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) is a non-invasive procedure that uses shock waves to break up kidney stones into smaller pieces, making them easier to pass.
  6. Ureteroscopy:
    • A thin tube with a camera (ureteroscope) is inserted into the urethra and passed through the bladder and ureter to remove or break up the stone.
  7. Surgical Intervention:
    • In some cases, particularly for large or stubborn stones, surgical procedures like percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) may be performed to remove or break up the stones.
  8. Preventive Measures:
    • Lifestyle and dietary modifications, such as increasing fluid intake and making dietary changes to reduce the risk of stone formation, are crucial for preventing recurrent kidney stones.


Several factors contribute to the formation of kidney stones, including dehydration, dietary choices, genetic predisposition, and certain medical conditions. The symptoms of kidney stones can be intense and may require medical intervention. Treatment approaches depend on the size and type of the stone, as well as the severity of symptoms. Common strategies include pain management, hydration, medical expulsion therapy, and various medical procedures such as lithotripsy or ureteroscopy. Surgical intervention may be necessary for larger or stubborn stones.

Preventive measures, including lifestyle and dietary modifications, are crucial to reduce the risk of recurrent kidney stones. Maintaining proper hydration, adopting a balanced diet, and addressing underlying medical conditions contribute to long-term prevention.

If individuals experience symptoms suggestive of kidney stones, seeking prompt medical attention is essential. Healthcare professionals can conduct diagnostic tests, recommend appropriate treatments, and provide guidance on preventive measures. Overall, understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for kidney stones is vital for managing this condition and promoting urinary tract health.

By Parvathy Sukumaran

Parvathy Sukumaran is a Content Creator and Editor at JustCare Health. She is an Educator and a Language Lecturer. She holds a Bachelor's Degree in Education and an M.A in English Literature. She is passionate about writing, archaeology, music and cooking.

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